Effects of friction
Friction hinders movement between two surfaces, which means that energy must be added to maintain movement. Friction transforms the momentum into heat. This heat is usually very difficult to utilize, and can typically be seen as a pure loss. It has recently been estimated that as much as about 20% of the world's total energy use is spent on overcoming friction. (Holmberg et al. 2017).
In addition, wear of materials subsequently often leads to increasing energy losses; sometimes noticeable as efficiency decreases gradually. This applies, for example, to many motors, pumps and tools.
Tribological research enables new energy-efficient solutions!
Tribological research gradually leads to lower friction losses in all possible products and contexts. These can include developing better materials and surface layers (new low friction materials or materials that enable new energy-smart designs), better lubricants that can better combine low friction and abrasion protection (without relying on environmentally or health hazardous additives), better constructive designs, and much more.